FLINT TOOLS (Calcolithic Period, lower Jordan Valley). Because of the sheer availability of materials, stone tools were very important before, and even long after, ancient people began to use metal. For some uses a razor-like flint-cutting edge is superior to a metal one. One of the most common uses of flint was knife blades and arrow points for hunting and warfare.
This is likely the "hearing hall" mentioned in Acts 25:11-12, 23. Paul was arrested in Jerusalem and accused of causing a riot. Such activity, which disrupted the "pax romana" (peace in the Roman Empire) often led to a penalty of death. Because Paul was a Roman citizen he demanded to be tried in Rome. The Roman authorities in Jerusalem sent him to Caesarea Maritima, the seat of the Roman governor at the time, where Paul presented his case before Festus. Luke tells us in Acts that the governor conferred with his counsel and then sent Paul on to Rome for trial. The likely date for this hearing was 58 CE. Paul was tried in Rome, imprisoned there for a few years, and finally executed.
Caesarea Maritima was a port city built by Herod the Great about 25-13 BCE. Herod constructed in Caesarea one of his many palaces. This one was sited on a promontory that jutted out into the Mediterranean Sea and shaped one side of the harbor of Caesarea. Herod's palace included a decorative pool, which was fed by ocean water and surrounded by columns. Caesarea was the official residence of Roman procurators and governors, including Pontius Pilate and Festus.
Hasmonean coins in use at the time of Jesus. It would take well over 200 of these coins to equal one dinari, which would be a days wage. Commonly called a widow's mite from the passage in NT where Jesus noticed a poor widow woman offering in the temple all that she had.
jFive lamps which correspond to archaeological periods in the biblical narrative. The four-spouted quad lamp dates to the late part of the Early Bronze Age and the first quarter of the Middle Bronze Age Period. Around 2350-1950 BCE. The Canaanites were in the land of Israel; the Egyptians had finished building the pyramids; and this is probably the pre-patriarchal period in Israel.
Poman period terra cotta lamp with an image of a rabbit. These lamps were in common use during the time of Jesus and throughout the Roman period. Olive oil was used for fuel and a small piece of textile would be used for the wick.
In the time of Herod the Great this lamp would be in common use in the homes of observant Jewish people because of the second commandment that they should have no graven images, these lamps were made very plain whereas the Romman, or Gentile, lamps had images engraved on them. These lamps are a good indication for archaeologists in identifying Jewish settlements from Gentile settlements through the Sea of Galille and throughout Israel.
QHIRBET KARAKWARE (Early Bronze Age III, Lower Galilee). The burnished black outside and red inside finish is extremely rare and intact vessels are difficult to find. The Bowl is a reproduction but the sherd is authentic. This fine ceramic ware was used primarily by the upper classes because it was very expensive compared to common wares. The style reflects influence from Anatolia (modern Turkey).
CUNEIFORM TABLET (Early Bronze Age, Ebla in Syria). Cuneiform is a form of wedge-shaped writing on clay tablets. According to this Eblaite cuneiform tablet, Lugal (the Great One, a Mesopotamian god) created the heavens, the earth, the sun and the moon by his spoken word. That there is a connection between the story on this clay tablet and the creation narrative in Genesis is unmistakable. All of the people of the ancient Near East possessed creation traditions though usually in a form associated with pagan influences. Nonetheless their similarities to the biblical story are striking.
QHIRBET KARAKWARE (Early Bronze Age III, Lower Galilee). In all periods fine ceramic wares were used primarily by the upper classes because they were very expensive compared to common wares. The burnished black outside and red inside finish on this brand of fineware made it distinctive. The style reflects influence from the region of Anatolia (modern Turkey).